Many scholarly publishers now assign an alpha-numeric code called a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) to journal articles and other documents. APA guidelines for citing electronic resources include this number in the citation whenever possible. The DOI can generally be found on the first page of scholarly journal articles as well as in the database record for that article.
If the DOI does not appear on the article or in the database record, it may be found by entering citation information into the free DOI Lookup on CrossRef.org.
To determine DOIs for an entire reference list, copy & paste the entire list here: Cross/Ref Simple Text Query.
A DOI can be searched or verified by entering the DOI number here: Cross/Ref DOI Resolver.
Materials originally published prior to the Internet, but now available online, may not have a DOI. Use this DOI Flow Chart created by APA to help you decide what information you need to include if you cannot find a DOI.
In-text references should immediately follow the title, word, or phrase to which they are directly relevant, rather than appearing at the end of long clauses or sentences. In-text references should always precede punctuation marks. Below are examples of using in-text citation.
Author's name in parentheses:
One study found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic (Gass & Varonis, 1984).
Author's name part of narrative:
Gass and Varonis (1984) found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic.
Group as author:
First citation: (American Psychological Association [APA], 2015)
Subsequent citation: (APA, 2015)
Multiple works: (separate each work with semi-colons)
Research shows that listening to a particular accent improves comprehension of accented speech in general (Gass & Varonis, 1984; Krech Thomas, 2004).
Direct quote: (include page number)
One study found that “the listener's familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 85).
Gass and Varonis (1984) found that “the listener’s familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (p. 85).
Note: For direct quotations of more than 40 words, display the quote as an indented block of text without quotation marks and include the authors’ names, year, and page number in parentheses at the end of the quote. For example:
This suggests that familiarity with nonnative speech in general, although it is clearly not as important a variable as topic familiarity, may indeed have some effect. That is, prior experience with nonnative speech, such as that gained by listening to the reading, facilitates comprehension. (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 77)