Leo Tolstoy What Is Art Bibliography Format

Book Description:

"My aim is to present Tolstoy's work as he may have understood it himself," writes Donna Orwin. Reconstructing the intellectual and psychic struggles behind the masterpieces of his early and middle age, this major study covers the period during which he wroteThe Cossacks,War and Peace, andAnna Karenina. Orwin uses the tools of biography, intellectual and literary history, and textual analysis to explain how Tolstoy's tormented search for moral certainty unfolded, creating fundamental differences among the great novels of the "pre-crisis" period.

Distinguished by its historical emphasis, this book demonstrates that the great novelist, who had once seen a fundamental harmony between human conscience and nature's vitality, began eventually to believe in a dangerous rift between the two: during the years discussed here, Tolstoy moved gradually from a celebration of life to instruction about its moral dimensions. Paying special attention to Tolstoy's reading of Rousseau, Goethe, Schopenhauer, and the Russian thinker N. N. Strakhov, Orwin also explores numerous other influences on his thought. In so doing, she shows how his philosophical and emotional conflicts changed form but continued unabated--until, with his religious conversion of 1880, he surrendered his long attempt to make sense of life through art alone.

eISBN: 978-1-4008-2088-7

Subjects: Language & Literature

Book by a Single Author or Editor

Single Author

E-book with Single Editor - Read Online or on Library Database

If you are citing an entire edited book, place the editor's name in the author position followed by "editor." 

E-book on a Device (Kindle, EPUB)

If the type of e-book is not known, use the word "e-book" as a version.

Conroy, Pat. The Death of Santini: The Story of a Father and His Son. Kindle ed., Doubleday, 2013. 

Book by Multiple Authors or Editors

Two authors

List the authors in the order they appear on the title page. List the first author with the last name first; second authors are listed with the first name followed by the last name. Use the form of the name given on the title page.





Three or more authors or editors

When there are three or more authors or editors, use the first name listed on the title page and list using the last name first followed by a comma and et al. (which means "and others").


If the focus is the translation of a work, treat the translator as the author.


Bartlett, Rosamund, translator. Anna Karenina. By Leo Tolstoy, Oxford UP, 2014. 

If the focus is the work itself, include the translator because their contribution is considered significant.


Tolstoy, Leo. Anna Karenina. Translated by Rosamund Bartlett, Oxford UP, 2014.

Book by a Corporate Author 

If the author is the same organization as the publisher, skip the author's name and include the publisher's name. If the corporate author is different from the publisher, include the name and drop the word "The" at the beginning of corporate names.

Example 1:

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. 6th ed.American Psychological Association,  2010.

Example 2

American Civil Liberties Union. Why President Richard Nixon Should be Impeached. Public Affairs Press, [1973?].

Book in a Series

If your book is part of a series and if it would help your reader to know that it is part of a series, the series name and number (if any) should be given after the date of publication. Do not italicize or put in quotes. 


Chapter, Section, or Essay in an Edited Book

Begin the citation with the author of the work, not the editor of the book. If no author is listed, begin with the title of the article or section.

Example 1 (Source from an Anthology):

Example 2 (Source from a Reference Resource):

Edition Other than the First, More than One Publishing Company

Include edition statements for versions other than the first edition. Abbreviate edition (ed.) and revised (rev.), but write out other editions in lower case unless an initial letter is preceded by a period. If two different publishers are listed, separate with a slash (do not list both if one is a division of a larger publishing company). 

Multivolume Work

Include the volume number after the editor's name. (If there is no editor, the volume number will appear after the title.)

Example (one article):

Example (entire set, but the number of total volumes is optional):

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